Anatomy of the knee

The knee is very stressed during walking or running and can withstand great stresses, it must be particularly stable to avoid falls. Knee pathologies can be traumatic or degenerative (related to age, professional practice or sport).

The knee is a rather complex joint that allows the leg to be folded and extended during walking, as well as some rotational movements.

The bones of the knee

The knee joint is made up of the lower end of the femur (thighbone), the upper end of the tibia (shinbone) and the patella (kneecap) held by the quadriceps.
The bone extremities are covered with cartilage, which allow a harmonious sliding of the articular surfaces.


The knee has two meniscuses (medial and lateral) that interpose between the femur and the tibia and act as shock absorbers during walking, running or jumping.


Four ligaments hold the knee. Two collateral ligaments : medial (on the inside of the leg) and lateral (on the outside), and two cruciate ligaments : anterior (ACL) and posterior.

Below, a short video for more information (in French)